Solidarité Ukraine
INED Éditions. Archives Sonores, Mémoires européennes du Goulag

European Memories

of the Gulag


Difficulties on her return

Ján Antal speaks of his mother, Irena, with great admiration. After her return she had considerable money problems because her nine years working in the Gulag were not recognised by the authorities. She did a succession of odd jobs to survive. She taught Ján how to cook and work. She acted as both mother and father to him.