Solidarité Ukraine
INED Éditions. Sound Archives, European Memories of the Gulag

The other deportation

Naum Kleiman’s paternal grandparents were arrested in 1941, just after the Soviets arrived. His grandfather was sent to Ivdel Camp in the Urals, where he died after a hunger strike. His grandmother was deported to Turkmenistan, where her son found her and “bought” her freedom (after receiving from him some materials in short supply, the local authorities agreed to produce a false death certificate and let them both leave).